Estonia, one of Baltic countries becoming independent of the Soviet Union along with Latvia and Lithania in early 1990s, is one of IT conscious countries with significant numbers of IT-related startups including Skype. Estonian government is making its best efforts to make a "digital country" by inviting IT engineers to a number of offshore development sites in Europe's IT market.
The government issues Estonian citizens an ID card, just similar to a Social Security Card in the United States, which enables holders to offer one-stop services including taxation, online banking, issuing medical prescriptions, and more. In addition to offering an ID card for real residents, it started the e-Residency scheme, which is available for not only residents within Estonia but people who don't really live in Estonia. In this scheme, an "e-Residency Card" is issued to the "e-Residents" of Estonia and similar services to those for real residents are offered "electronically" with the card via their computers.
Application for an e-Residency Card is easy. First you have to visit the application page of the e-Estonia website at https://apply.e-estonia.com/. And then you can apply for the card by filling in necessary information in the form of the web page and paying €50.99 online by credit card. You can make the card to be sent to any Estonian Embassy outside Estonia so that you can pick it up at the nearest Embassy without flying to Estonia. About one month from the online application the card will be ready, when you will receive notification by email.